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R & D and manufacturing technology of precision machine tools are cutting-edge technologies
Date: 2015-01-07 Popularity: 1867
"The research and development and manufacturing technology of ultra-precision machine tools is a cutting-edge technology that will lead the machine tool's processing accuracy to continue to advance in the technical fields that humans have never involved. The application fields of ultra-precision machine tool technology have expanded to many aspects of our daily lives , And is enriching and changing our lives. "Liu Bingye, director of the Beijing Machine Tool Research Institute, pointed out at the 2014 China Machine Tool Development High-end Forum on June 19," When we are full of complex manufacturing equipment in the manufacturing industry, we It should be known that one type of machine tool rarely appears in industry exhibitions, but it is a machine tool that developed countries attach great importance to and take measures to control. This is the ultra-precision machine tool, which reflects the competitiveness of a country's precision technology. "
High precision is the mainstream trend of CNC machine tools. "In the past 30 years, machine tool technology worldwide has been greatly developed. The development trend of machine tool technology has also exhibited diversified characteristics, such as the trend of high precision and high-speed motion. Trend, multi-movement axis trend, high-reliability trend, multi-functional compound trend, reconfigurable trend, low-energy-consumption environmental protection trend, and intelligent trend, etc., but among all the trends, it can best reflect development The mainstream trend should be the trend of high precision and intelligence. "Liu Bingye emphasized that high precision is the mainstream development trend of CNC machine tools, and the precision of ultra-precision machining is an order of magnitude higher than that of precision machining.
In fact, the technical fields involved in ultra-precision machining technology are very rich. In the 30-year research history of Beijing Machine Tool Research Institute, Liu Bingye systematically summarized 36 key frontier research and 11 leading core technologies for the related technologies involved in ultra-precision machining technology. Among them, the key frontier research includes six aspects of design, moving parts, measurement analysis, process technology, mainframe manufacturing technology and machine tool application condition technology. Leading core technologies include: precision ultra-precision spindle key structure manufacturing technology, precision ultra-precision linear motion component key structure manufacturing technology, high-resolution motion drive technology, machine tool key component manufacturing process manufacturing technology, and component resistance to external interference technology , High stability and rapid linear motion structure and manufacturing technology, nested structure design technology of multi-motion axis machine tools, and machine tool integrated manufacturing technology for target part manufacturing.
"In the development of machine tool accuracy from micron to nanometer level, there are three key technologies that cannot be avoided. These three technologies are also the research threshold for nano-precision machine tools." Liu Bingye analyzed that one of the technologies is the bearing technology without hysteresis. The hysteresis phenomenon exists in a large number of mechanical systems. The hysteresis phenomenon not only seriously affects the positioning accuracy of the machine tool slide and the accuracy of repeated positioning, but also affects the high-resolution realization of the movement. It also affects the accuracy of the machining shape and surface roughness of precision parts . And the static pressure bearing technology can well solve the phenomenon of mechanical hysteresis, and can even out geometric errors, and has been widely used in ultra-precision machine tools. The static pressure technology has made significant progress in the past ten years, and the self-compensated feedback technology is more mature. Flow-controlled throttling technology has greatly improved the rigidity of hydrostatic bearings, and has continuously increased the hardness of materials processed by ultra-precision machine tools.
The other two key technologies are high-resolution drive technology and micro-vibration processing technology in mechanical systems. Nano-level resolution is a characteristic manifestation of the performance of ultra-precision machine tools in the past ten years, and there are many factors affecting motion. At the same time, a large number of experimental studies have found that vibration signals on the order of 10 nanometers exist in many mechanical actuators and cause interference with the execution and measurement of mechanical sensitivity. This type of vibration is called microvibration. "In-depth research on the mechanism of microvibration and finding a solution is the only way for ultra-precision machine tools to achieve nano-precision." Liu Bingye said.
Meet the application needs of ultra-precision technology "In China's aerospace and remote sensing, laser nuclear fusion, defense weapon systems, astronomical detection and other advanced technology fields, the demand for large-caliber aspherical optical components is increasing, but some foreign high-end optical processing equipment and technology The embargo is imposed on China. At present, related scientific research work on the processing process of large-diameter aspheric parts in China has been carried out, but the maturity is still low. At the same time, the self-developed equipment has lower processing accuracy than foreign standards, and the effective units are effective. The combination is insufficient, and there are still problems such as the low degree of integration of large-caliber optical parts processing and ultra-precision processing technology. "Jiang Zhuangde, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, also raised the urgent need for China's ultra-precision processing and measurement technology and equipment at the forum.
Jiang Zhuangde stated that in the future, China's ultra-precision processing technology should solve the digital processing technology of large-caliber aspheric parts, improve the core competitiveness and overall technical level of China's optical processing field, solve the embargo problem and replace imports. For example, for an ultra-precision milling machine with a diameter of 900 millimeters, this project is a key project in the advanced manufacturing technology area of the “11th Five-Year Plan” National 863 Program. It mainly addresses the ultra-precision manufacturing of large-scale optical devices such as aerospace and laser fusion.
Regarding the key application directions of ultra-precision machine tools in the future, Liu Bingye said that hard turning and hard milling will be used in large numbers, and smoothing and hard turning will replace grinding. Ultra-precision machine tool technology is suitable for processing automotive parts, bearing rings, injection molds, hydraulic valves, balls, screws, nuts, etc., and can perform high-precision turning of stainless steel, cast iron, plastic, graphite, green ceramics and other materials. "The application of ultra-precision machine tool technology can greatly improve productivity and accuracy. The machining efficiency and surface quality of some automotive parts will be better than grinding. Because dry cutting can be more environmentally friendly. In addition, ultra-precision machine tool technology is applied to hard cutting Machine tools will greatly increase the life of machine tools. "
Previously, Beijing Machine Tool Research Institute and British Taylor Hopson Co., Ltd. jointly established a joint laboratory in Beijing Industrial Research Institute, and established a win-win mechanism through the joint laboratory to promote the long-term research and service of both parties in the field of metrology and inspection. development of. Not only do joint innovation through joint scientific and technological research and cooperative projects, but also provide a platform for both parties to carry out various business services through joint laboratories.
Liu Bingye said that in the future, the Beijing Machine Tool Research Institute will rely on two national ultra-precision engineering research centers as the basis, and take the precision ultra-precision CNC machine tool innovation capability platform as the basic organization method to accelerate the establishment of a larger-scale precision ultra-precision machine tool alliance. Industrialization process, expanding market share. "In the next 5 years, we have the confidence and ability to push ultra-precision machine technology to new heights."
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